The UN recently released a report on “Protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms while countering terrorism” by Special Rapporteur Martin Scheinin that focuses on gender. The report (which can be accessed in pdf form here) is mostly about human rights abuses experienced by “women,” by which it seems the author means cis women. However, it takes a broad approach to gender, looking at intersections of race, religion, sexual orientation, and gender identity:
Gender is not synonymous with women but rather encompasses the social constructions that underlie how women’s and men’s roles, functions and responsibilities, including in relation to sexual orientation and gender identity, are defined and understood. This report will therefore identify the gendered impact of counter-terrorism measures both on women and men, as well as the rights of persons of diverse sexual orientations and gender identities. As a social construct, gender is also informed by, and intersects with, various other means by which roles, functions and responsibilities are perceived and practiced, such as race, ethnicity, culture, religion and class. Consequently, gender is not static; it is changeable over time and across contexts.Understanding gender as a social and shifting construct rather
than as a biological and fixed category is important because it helps to identify the complex and inter-related gender-based human rights violations caused by counterterrorism measures; to understand the underlying causes of these violations; and to design strategies for countering terrorism that are truly non-discriminatory and inclusive of all actors.
The report includes some discussion of how security measures negatively impact transgender folks:
Counter-terrorism measures disproportionately affect women and transgender asylum-seekers, refugees and immigrants in specific ways. For example, enhanced immigration controls that focus attention on male bombers who may be dressing as females to avoid scrutiny make transgender persons susceptible to increased harassment and suspicion. Similarly, counter-terrorism measures that involve increased travel document security, such as stricter procedures for issuing, changing and verifying identity documents, risk unduly penalizing transgender persons whose personal appearance and data are subject to change.
I have written previously about the dangers of travel document security measures for trans folks. I am very happy to see the UN acknowledging this reality.
Unsurprisingly, conservative attacks on this report have focused on the inclusion of trans issues despite the fact that they make up a small fraction of the content. The primary conservative arguments are that the UN is trying to redefine gender (as opposed to acknowledging how it functions) and over-valuing the human rights of people who don’t matter (women, gay, trans, and intersex folks, but it’s more sensationalist to focus on trans folks than cis women). Frank Gaffney, founder and president of the Center for Security Policy, told the conservative CNS News:
“It strikes me as a parody of U.N. political correctness and sexual universality, and it’s just hard for me to believe that anybody thinks that these notions actually should trump security concerns – as I think it’s only too clear that … the people who are trying to blow us up have absolutely no use for any of these sexual proclivities.”
Huh? Yes, how inappropriate that counter-terrorism measures, which are pitched to “us” as being about defending rights and freedoms, should be conducted in a way that avoids human rights violations. I guess human rights don’t apply for people whose identities Gaffney considers “sexual proclivities.”
Steven Groves, a fellow at the Heritage Foundation, told CNS News:
“Instead of the Human Rights Council focusing how the human rights of people who are blown apart by terrorists impact people’s human rights they created a new office for someone to go and make sure that the terrorists’ human rights, and the human rights of almost everyone else – except for the victims of terrorism – are being protected, and so that is (Scheinin’s) mission.”
So you’re saying folks with less relative power and privilege along gender lines can’t be killed in terrorist attacks, can’t be the victims of terrorism, and are probably terrorists? Are only the most privileged cis men the victims of terrorism?
Fox News, classy as ever, even managed to include snark at the notion that victims and survivors of sex trafficking might be stigmatized with their snark about transgender and intersex folks.
Populations that are already the most vulnerable are easily caught in the crossfire when there is an escalation of violence and policing. Despite conservative attempts to stir up controversy I am glad to see the UN focus on this issue through a gender lens.